Arne Frederiksen:

What Science Tells Us

What is paedophilia? How common is it? Are all paedophiles homosexuals? Why are they paedophiles? Why do the children do it? Does it harm them?

To arrive at an answer to some or all of these questions I have searched the scientific literature on paedophilia and tried to put the pieces of the puzzle together. In some instances I had to seek additional help from more popular publications.

The results of my investigations are set out in this chapter, which shows that the general concept of "sex between children and adults" can better be broken down into a countless number of widely different phenomena that do not have much in common with each other.

We hear, for example, about the drunken husband who satisfies his sexual desires by raping his stepdaughter because his wife is unwilling to let him have intercourse with her, and we hear about the glowing love between a little boy and an adult man, a friendship that will last a lifetime.

One of the first scientific books written about paedophilia12 [the numbers refer to the bibliography at the end of this chapter] starts with an anecdote about a group of blind men debating with each other what an elephant is. One had discovered the trunk, a second collided with the elephant's hind leg and the third took hold of a tusk. Each believed that what he had found was the whole beast. Something of the same thing happens when paedophilia is discussed: up to the present day it has been dominated by the fact that everyone is talking from knowledge about a very small part of the subject and believes that what he or she knows can also be applied to all other forms of eroticism between children and adults. This is the cause of the widespread dissent about the subject.

It is evident that a sixteen-year-old girl who has been raped by her stepfather has not very much in common with an eight-year-old boy who has fallen in love with his football trainer, nor with an eighteen-year-old hustler.

Therefore we have tried in this chapter to unravel threads and to explain the differences between relationships that harm children, and those that are beneficial.

Human Sexuality Has Many Functions

To be able to have a basic understanding of the phenomena we must broaden our concept of sex. Our Christian culture teaches us that every form of sexual pleasure, or lust, is sinful if it does not serve the function of procreation. Other aspects of sexuality are ignored and suppressed to such an extent that we nearly forget about them. And even though, during the last decades, many of these taboos have been swept away, they still lie deeply hidden in our conviction that sex first and foremost has something to do with procreation. However, looking at other cultures we discover that sexuality may have quite different functions in no way related to procreation17.

In the first place, we can engage in sex simply because it feels good; it is a way of satisfying lust and giving us great pleasure. But human sexuality can also be a form of communication - not an end in itself, but rather something which serves to link two persons together. Love is a necessary ingredient for giving people a sense of security. The unconditional love a father and mother have for their children is the most complete assurance that the children will always have the parents' support when needed, however naughty they may have been. Nothing is more frustrating for a child than to be informed that "mother won't like you if you don't behave", because then, suddenly, conditions are imposed upon love and the child begins to feel insecure. The experience of unconditional love is a person's best assurance that he always may count on another's support. Our feelings of caring and love for those fellow humans who are suffering or are in distress also impels us to help such people.

Another form of sexuality is apprentice-love13. This is the attraction a young person may experience towards an adult whom he or she sees as a model or teacher. Apprentice-love is, in other words, an erotic attraction between pupil and mentor, used in the widest sense of the words.

A bond of love between teacher and pupil gives both parties the patience and energy necessary to further the process of instruction. In our Western culture an intimate relationship between teacher and pupil is not allowed. In many other cultures, especially those of the East, such relationships are more widely accepted and are consciously used to further the child's pleasure in learning9.

Best known is certainly the practice in ancient Greece of every respectable man having taken an adolescent in his custody to be his lover and to teach the path to manhood and courage. Sexual relations between the two acquired a ritual significance whereby the adult injected his "masculine power" into the boy17. In our time, too, we may meet with "masculine power" rituals in some primitive cultures24.

We find another form of apprentice-love in the open hero-worship which is so characteristic of boys. When we look at the books, comics and movies boys are interested in we see that there is always a super-hero for boys to admire and adore. The boy identifies with Tarzan or James Bond, imitates him, wants to be like him. The boy strives to be a man, and, by imitating his idol, he learns the role of the male in society.

Obviously, a boy cannot learn the male sex role from a woman, and therefore this form of love is of necessity homosexual44, even though the boy may not be gay in the traditional sense.

An entirely different side of human sexuality, completely suppressed in our culture, is the religious or cosmic sexual experience. In many primitive societies, religious ceremonies or orgies are performed where the participants are brought through sexual stimulation to a feeling of social solidarity, this becoming a nearly transcendental experience of being one with God and the universe. Many among us have had similar experiences, one or more times: perhaps while masturbating alone in nature we have suddenly felt united with the sun, the wind, the sea and the universe26. Such experiences, unfortunately, are not very well regarded in our own culture, and most people prefer not to speak about what they have no words for.

Still another form of sexuality, rightly frowned upon by our society, is the aggressive demonstration of power for purposes other than sexual satisfaction17 (not to be confused with sadomasochism).

Sexual Assault

Fortunately, children are rarely exposed to sexual coercion or the abuse of authority. If I choose to discuss these kinds of sexual acts first, I do so only because they form the basis of the strongest objection to child-adult sex.

Where a child is sexually assaulted or compelled to participate in a sexual relationship it does not want, the aggressor is nearly always a male and the victim a girl20.

It goes without saying that the man's motive is not love. In some cases it is sexual desire, in others it is a demonstration of power; often, it is a combination of both40. Several investigations have shown that men who sexually assault girls are seldom true paedophiles: they are heterosexual males who have difficulty in finding partners and are sexually frustrated. If such a man cannot sleep with an adult female, or doesn't dare to, he takes as substitute a young girl who is markedly easier to master1,22.

The man rarely needs to employ brute force12,20. The case of the young girl who is assaulted and raped in a dark alley is an exception10,20; moreover, the perpetrator of such an assault, when it does occur, is usually a male of about the same age as the girl, and so paedophilia is not involved here at all22.

Stories about such rapes always get wide publicity in the newspapers, creating great anxiety in parents and young girls. Nevertheless such cases are very rare. Much more frequent is the hidden oppression and physical violence to which girls are exposed by those in their immediate environment. It can be the girl's own father, stepfather, uncle or another adult male with whom the girl is in close contact20,38. Such situations are generally kept hidden within the home, seldom reaching public notice. Most cases of exploitation of a daughter are symptoms of marital problems and of the fact that the entire family functions poorly6,22,41. It is only in the last few years that people have started paying attention to this problem, and credit for this is due first and foremost to the feminist movement.

It is a characteristic of these incestuous assaults that the girl offers little if any resistance. She is literally paralysed by fear and does not dare to reject the advances of her own father or uncle or whomever it may be.

These are not cases of physical violence, but of psychical violence which can be far more dangerous. The girl later reproaches herself for having tolerated rather than having offered strong resistance to the assault. She feels guilty for not having protested strongly enough and her emotions of shame and self-hatred are unbearable because of this39,40.

Incestuous assaults are very seldom reported to the police because the inevitable imprisonment of the father or other family member (for about 2 years in Denmark) will threaten the family unit39,41. An experiment in the United States with treatment instead of punishment for incest-fathers has had positive results and has led to a large increase in the number of cases reported41.

The psychological abuse of power which we see in most incestuous relations is only made possible by the girl's dependence on the male family member. If it had been a stranger, she could have protested more easily or she could have threatened to complain to the police. But this does not mean that there is always an abuse of power in sexual relations between parents and children. Harmonious incestuous relationships do exist27,28 even if, for understandable reasons, we seldom hear of them.

Damaging Effects

Children may incur serious psychological damage if they are exposed to sexual assault against their will, and the damage may last for the rest of their lives. Sexual fears, depression and social problems will generally result20. It is not the sexual act itself that is damaging, nor is it the kind of sexual act which took place: it is first and foremost how the child experienced the sexual event or events. If the child experienced the act as an assault, he or she may henceforth be filled with aversion and hatred. Shame and self-hatred are key words to understanding the psychological damage that children may suffer from such assaults6,39,40.

The upbringing of the child is, therefore, of great importance in determining its reaction to such sexual experiences. It has been proven that children who have been raised in a restrictive environment are, in general, harmed more by sexual assaults than are children who have received a more liberal upbringing20. A girl from a strict puritan background who has been taught that sex is the worst evil that can ever befall her but who has not the slightest idea of what sex actually is, will be much more frightened than the experienced girl who has had a more liberal upbringing and who understands what is going on and why the man is doing what he is doing6.

The way people react when they are informed of what has taken place is also of great importance for the child. If the child is told that he or she has been the victim of the most loathsome and shameful act that exists, this will unavoidably have a great impact upon the child6,20,33. Even children who had wholly and freely accepted the sexual relations, and moreover liked them, will be troubled and frightened by such a reaction4. It is still worse when the police become involved13,20,33. In cases of sexual delinquency children are often exposed to long and unmerciful police examinations11. Sometimes the child's statement is not believed. Moreover, it is an unbelievably heavy burden for the child to have to give witness against a man whom he or she loves in spite of all that has happened. If it is the girl's own father whom she, in so doing, will send to prison, she cannot avoid feeling guilty for splitting up the family and making it miserable. No wonder so many children are marked for life by such an experience!

Desired Relationships

It is important to understand that voluntary paedophile relationships have as little in common with those coerced relations and assaults that we have just been discussing than do mutually desired relations between two loving adults and rape. In true paedophilia, we have a child and an adult who love or at least like each other and have agreed to perform sexual acts or intimacies that they both want9,10. Freud's studies have made us aware that children, too, have sexual feelings and desires, even where their sexuality has been suppressed or inhibited to an incredible degree.

A child will not be harmed by a sexual contact that he or she wants and perceives as agreeable, irrespective of the child's age or whether the partner is an adult or another child. Several recent investigations have determined the extent to which children were or were not harmed by their sexual experiences. Previous research had been based either on cases which had been reported to the police or, in several cases, on women seeking psychiatric help after having been sexually abused as a child. In such investigations there is, of course, a preponderance of assault and rape, since consensual relations are rarely reported to the police23, and still less often reported are those that do not result in the need for psychiatric help. These earlier investigations have given quite a distorted picture of paedophilia, as violent assaults only form a small fraction of paedophile relationships.

In later research contact was made with the children and adults involved with the aid of paedophile organisations and underground movements, or by other means4,8,9,10. Here they were dealing exclusively with voluntary relations, and in these cases it proved impossible to detect any harmful effects upon the children. In fact, many children stated that they were happy with the relationship and that they had benefited psychologically from it6,8,9. In research among prisoners, on the other hand, a number of examples of involuntary relations were found and, as could be expected, these included examples where children had been harmed23.

Many of the investigations make no distinction between voluntary and forced relations, but where the distinction is made, it seems quite clear that in cases of consensual relations no form of psychological trauma could be detected as a result of the child's sexual relations with an adult2,6,8,20. As far as we know, there is not a single scientific investigation proving or rendering it probable that children may be harmed by free-will sexual relations with an adult. On the other hand, secondary damage was discerned in some cases as a result of negative reactions from the parents and others4,6,10,13,20.

Homosexual Paedophile Relations

Paedophile relations exist between men and girls, between men and boys, between women and girls and between women and boys. All combinations are possible.

But homosexual relations between men and boys are thought to be the most frequent6,10,14. To understand why, we must recognise that paedophilia has nothing whatsoever to do with the procreative drive. It has to do with a relationship between friends, affording both partners some exciting experiences and at the same time offering the boy a friend he can trust8,9,10. Boys discuss problems and ideas with their paedophile friends that they can never discuss with their parents.

It is easier for a paedophile than it is for most other adults to identify with the child's way of thinking and so he is able to talk about confidential matters with children on the child's own level10.

In such a paedophile relationship the boy identifies to some extent with the man, which is an expression of the "apprentice-love" we discussed earlier13,44. The boy strives to become a man by identifying with his mentor. The boy can learn all there is between heaven and earth from his lover - everything from repairing bicycles to how to treat other people14. And, of course, he also learns something about sex that perhaps his parents were too timid to tell him.

Many see such a friendship as a kind of gay relationship, but this is really somewhat misleading. The boys involved will not necessarily be interested in sex with a male when they later become adults and, in fact, will prefer sex with a woman9,10,14,18. Some of these boys are, of course, decidedly gay and will continue to live as homosexuals for the rest of their lives. For these gay boys it can be most valuable to meet an older and more experienced man who can initiate them into homosexual life. Without this guidance and experience it may be very difficult to come out later and live openly as a homosexual35.

As we have already observed, the boy in a homosexual paedophile relationship is not necessarily gay. It may, however, be even more surprising to discover that the man is also not always gay - at least not in the traditional sense. There are, indeed, many boy-lovers who also love adult women but do not wish to have sex with adult men or young girls. Such a man is, in other words, heterosexual towards adult partners and homosexual towards child partners1,9,10,19,22.

If we understand "gay" to refer to an emotional and social identity, and collectively as a group of people who have a common pattern of life29, then it would be fundamentally incorrect to call a male paedophile "gay". The psyche and life-style of the male paedophile is fundamentally different from that of gays9,22,43. It would be misleading to classify paedophiles as a sub-group of gays14, and some psychologists think that we are faced with two distinct forms of homosexuality17.

Gays and lesbians have always fought against portraying traditional sex roles in their relationships - they think that it is too narrow29. But this does not completely apply to paedophiles, for often they behave and feel themselves more like heterosexual men than like gays14,22 and transmit these sex roles to the boys.

Nevertheless, it would be going too far to pretend that paedophiles and gays have nothing at all in common. They have much in common and to a great degree. The borderline between the two groups is rather fluid and there are men who love (especially young) men as well as young boys.

Erotic relations between men and boys can have very different characteristics. Some relations are short-lived and are purely sexual in essence9. Others may continue for many years and are based upon deep trust and mutual respect8,9,14. The feelings that these individuals develop for each other can at times be so strong that the relationship will last for the rest of their lives. As the boy becomes an adult the sexual interest fades away in both partners, but a platonic relationship can remain4,9,10,14. There are some moving examples of the paedophile assisting at the young man's wedding ceremony, acting as godfather to his children13 and later even starting a love relationship with the boy's sons.

Another phenomenon characteristic of many homosexual paedophiles is a marked interest in the boy's social needs. We often find that paedophiles do a lot for boys who have problems with social adaptation or problems at home4,9, and some paedophiles feel particularly attracted to youngsters who are social drop-outs9,30. In the professional literature4,9,31 as well as in fiction30,34 we find many stories about paedophiles taking care of delinquent or difficult boys and succeeding through their unconditional love in helping them find the right path. The experience of many paedophiles is that these boys have practically insatiable sexual appetites30.

Love is nature's way of linking two people together, and it looks as if nature has wisely provided for the neglected boys in need of an adult's support by attracting them to just the kind of men who, more than all others, are willing and equipped to understand and assist them.

It is sometimes alleged that the paedophile exploits the boy's sexual needs to satisfy his own lust, or that the boy sexualizes a need that is not sexual in the first place. I find that this contention expresses too narrow an interpretation of the word sex. Sexual interaction between an adult and a child should, rather, be seen as a form of communication expressing the child's need for adult support. The sexual act may be seen as symbolic behaviour aimed at establishing an alliance of friendship between adult and child. The boy, in need of an adult male's support, will feel a very natural impulse to enter into such a bond of friendship.

But we should not fall into the trap of believing that all boys who go with adult men are "problem children". The majority of these boys come from harmonious, loving homes8,9,13. Perhaps they feel overprotected and compelled to emancipate themselves from their parents. Or perhaps they are only bent on having adventures9.

Most boys feel attracted to adult males, and this attraction may often find sexual expression9,17. If you question a boy about it, you will most likely hear that sex with a man is quite different and much more exciting than what they experience with age peers10, and that the initiator of the sexual contact is the boy as often as it is the adult9,10. In an American study carried out in 1965 of men selected at random, 4%, as children, had had sexual relations with adult males22. By today this percentage might well have increased14.

Heterosexual Paedophile Relations

No systematic research has been carried out regarding sexual relations between men and female minors that could be compared to the studies we have mentioned of homosexual paedophile relations. Most of what is recorded are cases involving sexual delinquency. Heterosexual male paedophiles lead an even more hidden life than their homosexual counterparts. They have nothing comparable to the gay movement to support them. The only paedophile organisation in the world that had more than a few heterosexual members (13%) determined that only 17% of these were exclusively paedophile while half of the homosexual members were attracted to minors exclusively. As these numbers show, heterosexual paedophilia is less frequently an exclusive phenomenon than is homosexual paedophilia21.

Research shows that male heterosexual paedophiles mainly prefer girls between the ages of 7 and 14, while male homosexual paedophiles prefer boys between 9 and 16. There are, of course, individual differences in both groups1,10,19,21. The differences in preferred age can be explained by the fact that girls mature at an earlier age than do boys.

Of those men who have sexual relations with girls, a certain percentage is not primarily paedophile and would prefer relations with mature women1. Here we are faced with men inhibited in their sexual contacts, men who have problems relating to adult women and as a result turn to girls as substitutes14,22. These men are more concerned with their own sexual satisfaction than with love and care for the young girl. As already stated above, this kind of contact may include violent assault, which undoubtedly accounts for the fact that it is mainly girls who are subjected to sexual assault during childhood20.

We should not, however, underestimate the influence of upbringing. Girls are taught to preserve their virtue and to feel shame if they "go wrong", while boys are encouraged to be proud of and to boast about their sexual experiences.

It is important to make a distinction between heterosexual men for whom a girl is only a substitute and heterosexual paedophile men, even though the boundary between the two groups can be somewhat fluid. The paedophile loves the girl and does not want to hurt her. Such a relationship will harm the girl as little as a homosexual relationship provided she feels secure within it.

The traditional image of a man seducing the innocent little girl is not always true to life. Many girls provoke or invite intimacies. One Danish lawyer even suggested adding to the concept of a "child-seducer" the term "adult-seducer" in reference to such children11.

Usually heterosexual paedophile contacts take place with a man within the girl's circle of acquaintances6,12. It could be her uncle, her neighbour or the father of a girlfriend.

Such relations have, in general, very different dynamics than do the homosexual paedophile ones14. The girl does not identify herself with the man as a boy would10. There is a bit of romance, as if they were playing at being husband and wife14. The heterosexual paedophile relation has, at least when older girls are involved, a pronounced similarity to the relations between two heterosexual adults. But this only applies to the psychic level. The sexual activities are usually more "innocent" and the girls generally retain their virginity12.

Female Paedophilia

Female paedophilia seems to be rather infrequent and there is virtually no information about it. What is written about female girl-lovers or korephiles, as they call themselves36, is limited to the contributions these women have made to various homosexual paedophile publications drawing attention to the fact that they are an ignored groupl5,32,42.

The now defunct English organisation Paedophile Information Exchange (PIE) had, according to a survey of it's members, two korephile members21. Later, it seems, the number increased. The Danish paedophile group currently has two korephile members.

Several authors believe that women have more socially acceptable opportunities for intimate contact with children than do men, and so they are not considered deviant if they love children1. But this can hardly be the only reason for paedophile women's "invisibility". Women are taught, to a greater extent than men, to suppress sexual impulses and abide by less tolerant moral principles with regard to sex. Moreover, we must understand that female paedophiles have difficulty in recognizing their behaviour as such if they are not acquainted with someone who shares with them their preference15.

From the rather limited sources I have quoted, and from my own conversations with female paedophiles and their partners, the picture emerges of a female paedophile similar to the male paedophile in a surprising number of ways. Woman-girl relationships contain the same elements of apprentice-love as we find in man-boy relationships. Woman-boy relationships have, on the other hand (as do man-girl relationships), more the characteristics of playing at lover and bride - imitating the activities of heterosexual adults37.

Another striking analogy between male and female paedophiles is that many women love young girls as well as adult males15. In other words, they are homosexual towards children but heterosexual towards adults - a pattern we have already seen in some male paedophiles.

There are, of course, also heterosexual paedophile women; women who are exclusively homosexual or only attracted to children. The variety is just as great as for men, and in the future it will no doubt be shown that there are more female paedophiles than has hitherto been recognised.

Bibliography and Notes

1. Peter Righton: "The adult", in Perspectives on Paedophilia (ref 3), p. 24-40.

2. Graham E. Powell, A.J. Chalkley: "The effects of paedophile attention on the child", in Perspectives on paedophilia (ref. 3), p. 59-76.

3. Brian Taylor: Perspectives on Paedophilia. Batsford, London 1981.

4. Michael Ingram: "Participating victims: A study of offences with boys", in Children and Sex (ref 7), p. 177-187.

5. Frits Bernard: "Paedophilia: Psychological consequences for the child", in Children and Sex (ref 7), p. 189-199.

6. Larry L. Constantine: "The effects of early sexual experiences: A review and synthesis of research", in Children and Sex (ref 7), p. 217-244.

7. Larry L. Constantine, Floyd M. Martinson: Children and Sex. New Findings, New Perspectives. Little, Brown and Co., Boston 1981.

8. Theo Sanfort: The Sexual Aspect of Paedophile Relations. Pan/Spartacus, Amsterdam 1982.

9. G. Parker Rossman: Sexual Experiences Between Men and Boys. Association Press, New York 1976; Temple, Smith, London 1979.

10. Frits Bernard: Kinderschänder? - Pädophilie. 3. Aufl., Foester Verlag, Berlin 1982.

11. Kai Tolstrup: "Om skadevirkninger of sædelighedsforbrydelser mod piger", Juristen 1969, p. 253- 262.

12. J.W. Mohr, R.E. Turner, M.B. Jerry: Paedophilia and Exhibitionism. University of Toronto Press, 1964.

13. Preben Hertoft: Klinisk Sexologi. 2. udgave. Munskgaard, København 1980, p. 278-289. [German translation: Klinische Sexologie, Köln 1989; Italian translation: Sessuologia clinica, Milano 1988.]

14. Edward Brongersma: "Die Pädophile Beziehung", in Pädophilie Heute (ref 16), p. 278-289.

15. Dagmar Döring: "Soviel Liebe and Zärtlichkeit", in Pädophilie Heute (ref 16), p. 153-154.

16. Joachim S. Hohmann: Pädophilie Heute, Foerster Verlag, Berlin 1980.

17. Thorkil Vanggaard: Phallós. Jonathan Cape, London 1972. [English translation: Phallos: A Symbol and its History in the Male World. Jonathan Cape, London 1972.]

18. R. H. Tindall: "The male adolescent involved with a pederast becomes an adult", Journal of Homosexuality 1977, Vol. 3, No. 4, p. 373.

19. Glenn D. Wilson, David N. Cox: The Child-Lovers, A Study of Paedophiles in Society. Peter Owen, London 1983.

20. Michael C. Baurmann: Sexualität, Gewalt and psychisch Folgen. Bundeskriminalamt, Wiesbaden 1983.

21. PIE: Survey of Members. Paedophile Information Exchange, London 1976.

22. Paul H. Gebhard, et al.: Sex Offenders, An Analysis of Types. Harper and Row, New York 1965.

23. For a summary of these investigations, see notes 2 and 6.

24. Tom O'Carroll (Note 25) cites various reports on foreign cultures where different kinds of adult-child sex contacts are common. See also notes 9 and 17.

25. Tom O'Carroll: Paedophilia, The Radical Case. Alyson Publications. Boston 1982.

26. Edward Brongersma: "Boycaught", in Paedo Alert News No. 15, p. 26-28. Coltsfoot Press, Spartacus, Amsterdam 1983.

27. Joan A. Nelson: "The Impact of Incest", in Children and Sex (ref. 7), p. 151-162.

28. Carolyn L. Symonds, et al.: "Forbidden Sexual Behavior among Kin", in Children and Sex (ref. 7), p. 151-162.

29. Wilhelm von Rosen: "Bøssekampens Politik". in Pan, København 1979.

30. Peter Schult: Besuche in Sackgassen, Trikont Verlag, Berlin 1982. (Autobiography)

31. See also the interview with Tommy later in this book.

32. Paidika, 1992, vol. 2, No. 4. Amsterdam

33. M. Zeeger: "Strafbare liefde en gevaarlijke bescherming". Proces 1978, 56, No.7/8, p. 167-171.

34. Alan Edward: Kit. The Coltsfoot Press, Spartacus, Amsterdam 1983.

35. Anette Johansen, Jørgen Johansen: Rapport om homofile. Lindhardt og Ringhof, København 1973.

36. The term "korephile" was created during the Université d'été homosexuelle de Marseille, 1981, according to Catherine Gonnard: "L'Amour des petites files", in Homophonies 1984, 49, p. 30.

37. See also the interview with Sus later in this book.

38. Lone Backe, Incest. Hans Reitzel, København 1983.

39. Nini Leick: "Incest-ofre beretter", in Incest (ref. 38), Chapter. 3.

40. Eva Hildebrandt: "Terapi of voksne kvinder, der har været ofre for incestuøse overgreb i bamdommen", in Incest (ref. 38), Chapter 7.

41. Carl Marquit: "Krænkeren - personlighedsdynamik og behandling", in Incest (ref. 38), Chapter 7.

42. Lesbia, February-March, 1984, p. 10-17. Paris 1984.

43. K. Freund, et. al.: "Femininity and preferred partner age in homosexual and heterosexual males", British Journal of Psychiatry, 1974, Vol. 125, p. 442.

44. Benoît Lapouge, Jean-Luc Pinard-Legry: L'enfant et le pédéraste. Editions du Seuil, Paris 1980, p. 89-104.

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